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An Introduction to the Android RxJava Reactive Extensions Library

By David Li on 2024-08-16T07:45:21.000Z

An Introduction to the Android RxJava Reactive Extensions Library

RxJava is a popular Java-based library that provides a powerful and expressive way to handle asynchronous programming and data streams in Android applications. Reactive Extensions, or Rx for short, is a family of libraries that implement the Reactive Programming paradigm across different programming languages, including Java, JavaScript, and .NET.

In this article, we will discuss the core concepts of RxJava, its advantages over traditional asynchronous programming approaches, and how to add the library to your Android project.

Reactive Programming and Observables

Reactive Programming is a declarative programming paradigm that focuses on working with data streams and the propagation of change. It enables developers to express complex, asynchronous operations in a more readable and maintainable way.

At the heart of RxJava is the Observable class, which represents a stream of data or events. An Observable can emit zero or more items and then optionally complete or emit an error. The items emitted by an Observable can be anything: data from a network request, user input events, or updates from a database.

The main advantage of using Observable is that it enables the developer to chain together multiple asynchronous operations and transform the data in a declarative manner. This results in code that is easier to read, write, and maintain.

Observers and Subscriptions

To receive the items emitted by an Observable, you need to subscribe to it using an Observer. The Observer is an interface that defines three methods:

  1. onNext(T item): Called when the Observable emits an item.
  2. onError(Throwable error): Called when the Observable encounters an error.
  3. onComplete(): Called when the Observable finishes emitting items.

When you subscribe an Observer to an Observable, you create a Subscription. This Subscription object can be used to control the flow of data and unsubscribe from the Observable to prevent memory leaks.


One of the most powerful features of RxJava is its rich set of operators that allow you to transform, combine, and manipulate data streams in various ways. Some common operators include:

  • map: Transforms the items emitted by an Observable by applying a function to each item.
  • filter: Filters the items emitted by an Observable based on a predicate function.
  • merge: Combines multiple Observables into a single Observable that emits items from all source Observables.
  • zip: Combines the emissions of multiple Observables together via a specified function and emits single items for each combination based on the results of this function.

Adding RxJava to Your Android Project

To add the RxJava library to your Android project, include the following dependency in your app’s build.gradle file:

dependencies {
    implementation 'io.reactivex.rxjava3:rxjava:3.x.y'

Replace 3.x.y with the latest version of the library.

Example: Fetching Data from a REST API

Let’s take a look at an example of how to use RxJava to fetch data from a REST API and display it in an Android app.

First, create an Observable that will emit the data from the API:

public Observable<List<Post>> getPostsObservable() {
    return apiService.getPosts()

In this example, we use the subscribeOn and observeOn operators to specify the threads on which the network request should be executed and on which the results should be processed.

Next, subscribe an Observer to the Observable:

getPostsObservable().subscribe(new Observer<List<Post>>() {
    public void onSubscribe(@NonNull Disposable d) {
        // Handle subscription

    public void onNext(@NonNull List<Post> posts) {
        // Update UI with the fetched data

    public void onError(@NonNull Throwable e) {
        // Handle error

    public void onComplete() {
        // Handle completion

In the onNext method, you can update your app’s UI with the fetched data.


RxJava is a powerful library for handling asynchronous programming in Android applications. By leveraging the power of Reactive Programming and the rich set of operators provided by the library, you can write code that is more expressive, readable, and maintainable.

Whether you’re working with network requests, user input events, or database updates, RxJava can help you manage and transform data streams in an efficient and elegant way.

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