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C++ Templates and Generic Programming A Deep Dive

By David Li on 2023-08-22T02:43:46.000Z

C++ Templates and Generic Programming: A Deep Dive

In this article, we will explore C++ templates, a powerful feature that enables generic programming. We will discuss the motivation behind templates, their syntax, and their role in implementing generic algorithms and data structures. We will also touch upon some advanced topics like template specialization and variadic templates.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction to Generic Programming
  2. C++ Templates: Syntax and Basics
  3. Template Functions
  4. Template Classes
  5. Template Specialization
  6. Variadic Templates
  7. Conclusion

Introduction to Generic Programming

Generic programming is a programming paradigm that emphasizes writing code that is reusable and adaptable to a wide range of types. This is achieved by defining algorithms and data structures in a type-agnostic manner, allowing them to operate on various types without the need for duplicate code.

In C++, templates are the primary mechanism for achieving generic programming. They enable developers to write functions and classes that can be used with different types, without explicitly specifying the types at the time of writing the code.

C++ Templates: Syntax and Basics

Templates in C++ are denoted by the template keyword, followed by the template parameters enclosed in angle brackets (< and >). Template parameters can be either type parameters or non-type parameters.

template<typename T>

In this example, T is a type parameter representing an arbitrary type. The typename keyword can be replaced with the class keyword, as they are interchangeable when defining template type parameters.

template<class T>

Non-type parameters are used to pass values, like integers, as template arguments. Here’s an example of a non-type parameter:

template<int N>

Template Functions

Template functions are functions that can operate on different types using a single implementation. They are defined by specifying the template parameters before the function definition.

template<typename T>
T max(T a, T b) {
    return (a > b) ? a : b;

In this example, we define a generic max function that works with any type T that has the > operator defined. To use the function, we simply call it with the desired types:

int main() {
    int a = 5, b = 3;
    double x = 2.5, y = 4.2;

    std::cout << "Max of integers: " << max(a, b) << std::endl;
    std::cout << "Max of doubles: " << max(x, y) << std::endl;

    return 0;

The compiler will generate specific instances of the max function for each type used during compilation.

Template Classes

Template classes enable the creation of generic data structures that can hold elements of any type. Similar to template functions, they are defined using the template keyword, followed by the template parameters.

template<typename T>
class Stack {
    std::vector<T> data;

    void push(const T& item) {

    T pop() {
        T item = data.back();
        return item;

    bool empty() const {
        return data.empty();

In this example, we define a generic Stack class that can hold elements of any type T. To use the Stack class, we instantiate it with the desired type:

int main() {
    Stack<int> intStack;
    std::cout << "Popped from intStack: " << intStack.pop() << std::endl;

    Stack<double> doubleStack;
    std::cout << "Popped from doubleStack: " << doubleStack.pop() << std::endl;

    return 0;

Template Specialization

Template specialization allows you to provide a specific implementation for a particular type or set of types, while still maintaining the generic implementation for other types.

To specialize a template function or class, use the template<> keyword, followed by the function or class definition with the specific type(s) for which the specialization is intended.

const char* max(const char* a, const char* b) {
    return (strcmp(a, b) > 0) ? a : b;

In this example, we provide a specialization of the max function for const char* types, which compares C-style strings using thestrcmp function.

Variadic Templates

Variadic templates allow you to define templates that accept a variable number of template arguments. They use the ... syntax to denote a parameter pack, which is a list of zero or more template arguments. Variadic templates are particularly useful for creating type-safe functions that accept a variable number of arguments.

Here’s an example of a variadic template function that calculates the sum of its arguments:

template<typename T>
T sum(T first) {
    return first;

template<typename T, typename... Args>
T sum(T first, Args... args) {
    return first + sum(args...);

In this example, we use recursion to process the variable number of arguments. The base case is a single-argument sum function, and the recursive case is the variadic sum function that adds the first argument to the sum of the remaining arguments.

int main() {
    std::cout << "Sum of integers: " << sum(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) << std::endl;
    std::cout << "Sum of doubles: " << sum(1.1, 2.2, 3.3) << std::endl;
    return 0;


C++ templates are a powerful feature that enables generic programming, allowing you to write reusable and adaptable code. By understanding and leveraging templates, you can create efficient and flexible algorithms and data structures that can be used with a wide range of types. This article provided an overview of the syntax and basics of C++ templates, as well as some advanced topics like template specialization and variadic templates.

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