David's Blog

Using UI Frameworks with React

By David Li on Fri, 29 November 2023

When building complex applications with React, one of the most common tasks you’ll encounter is working with forms. In React, form inputs are usually implemented as controlled components, which means that their value is controlled by React, rather than the DOM. This approach allows for a more declarative programming style and enables better control over the behavior of form elements.

To create a controlled component, you’ll need to keep the value of the input in the component’s state and update it in response to user input. This can be achieved by adding an onChange event handler to the input, which updates the state with the new value:

import { useState } from 'react';

function Form() {
 const [name, setName] = useState('');

 function handleNameChange(event) {

 return (
 <input type="text" value={name} onChange={handleNameChange} />

In the example above, we’re using the useState hook to keep track of the value of the name input. We’ve also added an onChange event handler to the input that calls the handleNameChange function, which updates the name state with the new value of the input.

By using a controlled component approach, we can easily validate and manipulate the form data before it is submitted to the server. We can also easily implement complex forms with multiple input fields and validation rules.

Overall, working with forms and controlled components in React can seem overwhelming at first, but once you understand the basic concepts, it becomes much easier to implement complex forms with ease.

In a single-page application built with React, navigation is typically handled using React Router. React Router is a powerful library that allows you to define routes and associate them with different components in your application.

To get started with React Router, you’ll need to install it using npm:

npm install react-router-dom

Once installed, you can import the components you need from the react-router-dom package. The BrowserRouter component is used to wrap your entire application and define the routes, while the Route component is used to define a specific route and the component that should be rendered when that route is matched.

Here’s an example of how you might define a simple route in your application:

import { BrowserRouter, Route } from 'react-router-dom';

function App() {
 return (
 <Route path="/" component={HomePage} />

function HomePage() {
 return <h1>Welcome to the homepage!</h1>;

In this example, we’re using the BrowserRouter component to wrap our entire application, and the Route component to define a route that matches the root URL (/) and renders the HomePage component.

React Router also provides several other components, such as Link and NavLink, that allow you to create links to different routes in your application. Here’s an example:

import { BrowserRouter, Route, Link } from 'react-router-dom';

function App() {
 return (
 <Link to="/">Home</Link>
 <Link to="/about">About</Link>

 <Route path="/" exact component={HomePage} />
 <Route path="/about" component={AboutPage} />

function HomePage() {
 return <h1>Welcome to the homepage!</h1>;

function AboutPage() {
 return <h1>About Us</h1>;

In this example, we’ve added a navigation menu to our application using the Link component. We’ve also defined two routes (/ and /about) and associated them with the HomePage and AboutPage components, respectively.

React Router provides many more features, such as nested routes, route parameters, and route guards, that allow you to build complex navigation systems for your applications. Overall, React Router is an essential tool for building single-page applications with React, and it’s worth taking the time to learn how to use it effectively.

As your React application grows in complexity, managing application state can become a challenging task. Redux is a powerful library that provides a solution to this problem by centralizing the state of your application in a single store.

To get started with Redux, you’ll need to install it using npm:

npm install redux react-redux

Once installed, you can define a Redux store and use it in your application. The store is created using the createStore function, which takes a reducer function as an argument. The reducer function is responsible for updating the state of the store in response to actions dispatched by your application.

Here’s an example of how you might define a simple store in your application:

import { createStore } from 'redux';

const initialState = {
 count: 0,

function reducer(state = initialState, action) {
 switch (action.type) {
 case 'INCREMENT':
 return { ...state, count: state.count + 1 };
 case 'DECREMENT':
 return { ...state, count: state.count - 1 };
 return state;

const store = createStore(reducer);

In this example, we’re defining a simple store with a count property that is initialized to zero. We’ve also defined a reducer function that updates the count property in response to two actions: INCREMENT and DECREMENT.

Once you’ve created your store, you can use it in your React application using the Provider component from the react-redux package. The Provider component takes your store as a prop and wraps your entire application.

import { Provider } from 'react-redux';

function App() {
 return (
 <Provider store={store}>
 <Counter />

function Counter() {
 const count = useSelector((state) => state.count);
 const dispatch = useDispatch();

 function handleIncrement() {
 dispatch({ type: 'INCREMENT' });

 function handleDecrement() {
 dispatch({ type: 'DECREMENT' });

 return (
 <h1>Count: {count}</h1>
 <button onClick={handleIncrement}>Increment</button>
 <button onClick={handleDecrement}>Decrement</button>

In this example, we’re using the useSelector and useDispatch hooks from the react-redux package to access the state of the store and dispatch actions, respectively. We’re also defining a Counter component that renders the current count and two buttons that dispatch INCREMENT and DECREMENT actions when clicked.

Overall, Redux is a powerful tool for managing application state in your React applications, and it can help simplify the process of working with complex state. However, it can also add complexity to your application, so it’s important to evaluate whether it’s the right solution for your specific use case.

As your React application grows in complexity, writing and running tests becomes more important to ensure that your code is functioning as expected. Jest and Enzyme are two popular tools for testing React applications.

To get started with Jest and Enzyme, you’ll need to install them using npm:

npm install jest enzyme enzyme-adapter-react-16

Once installed, you can define tests for your components. Here’s an example of a simple test for a Button component:

import React from 'react';
import { shallow } from 'enzyme';
import Button from './Button';

describe('<Button />', () => {
 it('renders the button text', () => {
 const wrapper = shallow(<Button text="Click me" />);
 expect(wrapper.text()).toEqual('Click me');

 it('calls the onClick function when clicked', () => {
 const onClick = jest.fn();
 const wrapper = shallow(<Button text="Click me" onClick={onClick} />);

In this example, we’re using the shallow function from Enzyme to create a shallow render of our Button component. We’re then defining two tests: one that ensures that the button text is rendered correctly, and another that ensures that the onClick function is called when the button is clicked.

To run your tests, you can use the Jest CLI by adding the following script to your package.json file:

"scripts": {
 "test": "jest"

You can then run your tests using the following command:

npm test

Jest will automatically find and run all of the test files in your project.

Overall, Jest and Enzyme are powerful tools for testing React applications, and they can help ensure that your code is functioning as expected. However, writing and maintaining tests can be time-consuming, so it’s important to evaluate whether it’s worth the investment for your specific use case.

Building and deploying a React application involves several steps, including configuring your build process, selecting a hosting provider, and deploying your application. In this post, we’ll walk through the steps involved in building and deploying a React application.

Configuring your build process

Before you can deploy your React application, you’ll need to configure your build process. The build process converts your source code into a format that can be served by a web server. To configure your build process, you’ll need to install the necessary tools and configure your build settings.

To get started, you’ll need to install Node.js and npm. Once you have Node.js and npm installed, you can install the necessary dependencies for your build process by running the following command:

npm install --save-dev webpack webpack-cli webpack-dev-server

Once you have installed the necessary dependencies, you can configure your build settings in a webpack.config.js file. Here’s an example configuration file:

const path = require('path');

module.exports = {
 entry: './src/index.js',
 output: {
 path: path.resolve(__dirname, 'dist'),
 filename: 'bundle.js',
 devServer: {
 contentBase: './dist',
 module: {
 rules: [
 test: /\.js$/,
 exclude: /node\_modules/,
 use: {
 loader: 'babel-loader',

In this configuration file, we’re specifying that our entry point is src/index.js and our output file is dist/bundle.js. We’re also configuring the devServer to serve our files from the dist directory. Finally, we’re specifying that we want to use the babel-loader to transpile our JavaScript code.

Selecting a hosting provider

Once you have configured your build process, you’ll need to select a hosting provider for your application. There are several hosting providers that are well-suited for hosting React applications, including:

  • AWS Amplify
  • Firebase
  • Netlify
  • Heroku

Each of these hosting providers has its own set of features and pricing plans, so it’s important to evaluate your specific needs and budget before selecting a provider.

Deploying your application

Once you have selected a hosting provider, you can deploy your application. The exact deployment process will depend on your hosting provider, but typically involves the following steps:

  1. Build your application using the webpack command.
  2. Push your build files to your hosting provider.
  3. Configure any necessary settings for your hosting provider, such as setting environment variables or configuring a custom domain.

Overall, building and deploying a React application involves several steps, but the process can be streamlined using tools like webpack and hosting providers like AWS Amplify or Netlify. By following best practices and carefully evaluating your options, you can deploy your application with confidence.

Maintaining and scaling a React application can be challenging as your codebase grows in complexity and your user base expands. In this post, we’ll cover some best practices for maintaining and scaling your React application.

Organizing your codebase

As your codebase grows, it’s important to organize your code in a way that is easy to maintain and understand. One common approach is to use a modular architecture, where each component is contained in its own file and organized into logical groups. This can make it easier to navigate your codebase and make changes as needed.

Another useful technique is to use a state management library like Redux to manage your application state. This can help ensure that your state is consistent across your application and make it easier to manage complex state interactions.

Optimizing performance

Optimizing the performance of your React application is critical for maintaining a good user experience, particularly as your user base grows. Some tips for optimizing performance include:

  • Use a production build of your application, which is optimized for performance.
  • Use code splitting to load only the parts of your application that are needed for a particular route or feature.
  • Minimize the number of HTTP requests by using tools like webpack to bundle your files.
  • Use lazy loading to defer the loading of non-critical resources until they are needed.
  • Use a CDN to cache static assets like images and fonts.

Testing and debugging

Testing and debugging are critical for maintaining the quality of your codebase, particularly as your application grows. Some best practices for testing and debugging include:

  • Write tests for each component and feature to ensure that they are functioning correctly.
  • Use a debugging tool like React Developer Tools to inspect the state and props of your components.
  • Use error tracking tools like Sentry or Rollbar to track and resolve errors in your application.
  • Use performance profiling tools like Chrome DevTools to identify performance bottlenecks in your application.

Scaling your infrastructure

Finally, as your user base grows, you may need to scale your infrastructure to handle increased traffic and load. Some tips for scaling your infrastructure include:

  • Use a cloud hosting provider like AWS or Google Cloud that can automatically scale your resources as needed.
  • Use load balancers to distribute traffic across multiple instances of your application.
  • Use caching tools like Redis or Memcached to cache frequently accessed data and reduce the load on your database.
  • Use a content delivery network (CDN) to cache static assets and improve load times for users in different geographic regions.

Overall, maintaining and scaling a React application requires careful planning and attention to detail. By following best practices and using tools and techniques like modular code organization, performance optimization, testing and debugging, and infrastructure scaling, you can ensure that your application is robust, scalable, and maintainable over the long term.

Deploying a React application can be challenging, but using Vercel can make the process much easier. Vercel is a cloud platform for static sites and serverless functions, which can help you easily deploy and manage your React application. In this post, we’ll walk through the steps to deploy a React application to Vercel.

Step 1: Create a Vercel account

The first step is to create a Vercel account. You can sign up for a free account on the Vercel website. Once you have created an account, you can create a new project.

Step 2: Connect your Git repository

The next step is to connect your Git repository to Vercel. This will allow Vercel to automatically deploy changes to your application when you push them to your Git repository. To connect your Git repository, navigate to the “Import Project” page in Vercel, select your Git repository, and follow the prompts to authorize Vercel to access your repository.

Step 3: Configure your build settings

Once your Git repository is connected, you will need to configure your build settings. This will tell Vercel how to build and deploy your application. To configure your build settings, navigate to the “Build & Development Settings” page in Vercel, and configure your settings as follows:

  • Set the “Framework Preset” to “React”
  • Set the “Build Command” to “npm run build”
  • Set the “Output Directory” to “build/”

Step 4: Deploy your application

Once your build settings are configured, you can deploy your application. To deploy your application, navigate to the “Deployments” page in Vercel, and click the “Deploy” button. Vercel will build and deploy your application, and provide you with a URL where you can access your deployed application.

Step 5: Update your DNS settings (optional)

If you want to use your own domain name for your deployed application, you will need to update your DNS settings to point to your Vercel deployment. To do this, navigate to your domain registrar’s website and configure your DNS settings to point to the Vercel deployment URL.

Overall, deploying a React application to Vercel is a straightforward process that can be completed in just a few steps. By following these steps, you can easily deploy and manage your React application on Vercel.

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